The endocannabinoid system is found in every animal except insects and regulates a wide range of biological functions. The ECS is a biochemical control system for neuromodulatory lipids (molecules that contain fats, waxes, sterols, and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, and others) and specialized receptors configured to accept certain cannabinoids. In general, a given receptor will only accept certain classes of compounds and will not be affected by other compounds, just like a certain key is needed to open a lock.
Specialized receptors are found throughout the human body, including, but not limited to, the hippocampus (memory, learning), the cerebral cortex (decision making, emotional behavior), the cerebellum (motor control, coordination), and the putamen (movement, learning), the hypothalamus (appetite, body temperature) and the amygdala (emotions). When a particular cannabinoid or combination of cannabinoids binds to a specialized receptor, an event or series of events is triggered in the cell, resulting in a change in the cell’s activity, its gene regulation and / or the signals it sends to neighbors sends cells. This process is known as “signal transmission”.
Science, which was first demonstrated in the brain, now shows that CB1-R is also found in many other organs, connective tissues and glands. CB1-R are not found in the medulla oblongata (the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions). CB1-R plays an important role in the coordination of movements, spatial orientation, sensory perceptions (taste, touch, smell, hearing), cognitive performance and motivation.
The most important function of the CB1-R is to reduce excessive or insufficient signals from the neurotransmitters (messenger substances) in the brain. By activating the CB1-R, the hyperactivity or hypoactivity of the messenger substances (e.g. serotonin, dopamine) is brought back into balance.
CB2-R are primarily associated with the immune system and are located outside the brain in places such as the intestines, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands, and reproductive organs. Until recently, it was believed that CB-2R did not play a role in nerve cells or bundles. However, studies now show that it also plays an important role in the brain’s signal processing.
A third receptor that has received little attention is the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). The function of TRPV1 is to sense and regulate body temperature. In addition, TRPVXNUMX is responsible for the sensations of extreme external heat and pain and is subject to desensitization. If the path is continuously stimulated, it will eventually slow down or even stop.